Cognates By Ending

There are a number of rules on word endings that will make it easier to associate English words with their Spanish cognates or vice versa. Although these rules are not applicable in every single case, they can be taken as general guidelines for understanding cognates in Spanish and English. It should be noted that these rules are only applicable to the specific word form (i.e. verb, noun, adjective, etc.) indicated in the description of the rule.

Add -ar or -ir

English verbs ending in vowel+consonant+t can often be converted to Spanish by adding the endings -ar or -ir.

al=al

English nouns ending in -al are often identical to their Spanish equivalent.

ary->ario

Many English adjectives ending in -ary can often be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ary with -ario.

ate->ar

Most English verbs ending in -ate can often be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ate ending with -ar.

ble=ble

English adjectives ending in -ble are often identical to their Spanish equivalents.

Drop -e and add -ar or -ir (infinitive verbs)

Many English infinitive verbs can be converted to Spanish by dropping the final -e and replacing it with either the -ar or the -ir ending.

Drop -ify and add -ificar (infinite verbs)

Most English infinitive verbs ending in -ify can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ify ending with the -ificar ending.

ic->ico

Many English adjectives ending in -ic can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ic ending with -ico ending.

id->ido

Many English adjectives ending in -id can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -id ending with -ido.

ile->il

Many English adjectives ending in -ile can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ile ending with the -il ending.

ism->ismo

Many English nouns ending in -ism can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ism ending with the -ismo ending.

ist->ista

Many English nouns ending in -ist can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ist ending with the -ista ending.

ive->ivo

Many English adjectives ending in -ive can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ive ending with the -ivo ending.

ly->mente

Many English adverbs ending in -ly can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ly ending with the -mente ending.

ment->mento

nce->ncia

Many English nouns ending in -nce can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -nce ending with -ncia.

nt->nte

Many English adjectives ending in -nt can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -nt ending with the -nte ending.

or=or

English nouns ending in -or are often identical to their Spanish equivalents.

ous->oso

Many English adjectives ending in -ous can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ous ending with -oso.

tion->ción

Many English nouns ending in -tion can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -tion ending with the -ción ending.

ty->dad

Many English nouns ending in -ty can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -ty ending with the -dad ending.

y->ía

Many English nouns ending in -y can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -y ending with the -ía ending.

y->ia

Many English nouns ending in -y can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -y ending with the -ia ending.

y->io

Many English nouns ending in -y can be converted to Spanish by replacing the -y ending with the -io ending.